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Subject: Calcium, Urine
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Urinary calcium levels reflects intake, rates of intestinal calcium absorption, bone resorption, and renal loss. Hypercalcemia of any cause raises urinary calcium excretion, and its measurement adds little to the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia. Fasting calcium excretion is useful when assessing the contribution of abnormal renal tubular handling of calcium to disorders of calcium homeostasis.
Twenty-four–hour urine: 100–300 mg/day
Males: 12–244 mg/g creatinine
Females: 9–328 mg/g creatinine
Evaluation of patients with disorders of bone disease, calcium metabolism, and renal stones
Follow-up of patients on calcium therapy for osteopenia
Best test of calcium excretion in the investigation of possible familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy
Vitamin D excess
Osteolytic bone metastases
Distal renal tubular acidosis
Malignant neoplasm of breast or bladder
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
Rickets and osteomalacia
Calcium and protein intake and phosphorus excretion alter urinary calcium excretion.
Decreases late in normal pregnancy.
About one third of hyperparathyroid patients have normal urine output.