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(a MAN ta deen)
Drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (IR and ER tablet only): Treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.
Parkinson disease, dyskinesias (adjunctive therapy) or mild motor symptoms (monotherapy):
Capsule: Treatment of dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson disease receiving levodopa-based therapy, with or without concomitant dopaminergic medications.
Tablet: Treatment of Parkinson disease.
Immediate release: Treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease (paralysis agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, parkinsonism in association with cerebral arteriosclerosis, and symptomatic parkinsonism, which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication.
Hypersensitivity to amantadine or any component of the formulation; end-stage renal disease (CrCl <15 mL/minute/1.73 m2) (extended release only).
Note: Amantadine is available as an IR capsule/tablet and syrup and an ER capsule/tablet. The IR formulations are interchangeable with one another, but they are not interchangeable with the ER formulations; the ER formulations are not interchangeable with one another.
Drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms:
ER tablet: Oral: Initial: 129 mg once daily; may increase based on response and tolerability by increments of 129 to 193 mg in weekly intervals to a maximum dose of 322 mg/day.
Immediate release: Oral: Initial: 100 mg twice daily; after 1 week, may increase based on response and tolerability to 300 mg/day in 3 divided doses (DiMascio 1976; Marder 2020; manufacturer’s labeling).
Multiple sclerosis–related fatigue (alternative agent) (off-label use):
Note: Reserve for patients who fail nonpharmacologic interventions and remain symptomatic despite treatment of underlying conditions (Olek 2020).
Immediate release: Oral: 100 mg twice daily (Ledinek 2013; Shaygannejad 2012).
Parkinson disease, dyskinesias (adjunctive therapy) or mild motor symptoms (monotherapy) (alternative agent):
Capsule: Oral: Initial: 137 mg once daily; after 1 week, increase to usual dose of 274 mg once daily.
Tablet: Oral: Initial: 129 mg once daily; may be increased based on response and tolerability by increments of 129 to 193 mg in weekly intervals to a maximum dose of 322 mg/day.
Immediate release: Oral: Initial: 100 mg twice daily or once daily (see: Note); after 1 week, may increase based on response and tolerability to usual maximum dose of 300 mg/day; some patients with dyskinesias may require up to 400 mg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses (Liang 2020; Sawada 2010; Spindler 2020).
Note: Initiate patients with a serious concomitant illness or those receiving high doses of other antiparkinson drugs at 100 mg once daily; may increase to 100 mg twice daily, if needed, after 1 to several weeks.
Discontinuation of therapy: Abrupt discontinuation may lead to worsening of Parkinson disease symptoms, hyperpyrexia, or changes in mental status. Reduce the dose by one-half for 1 to 2 weeks before discontinuing.
Refer to adult dosing; some patients tolerate the IR formulations better when administered in 2 divided daily doses (to avoid adverse neurologic reactions).
Discontinuation of therapy: Refer to adult dosing.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Limited data available: Oral: Immediate release: Children ≥5 years and Adolescents: Initial: 50 mg/day; titrate up at 4 to 7 day intervals in 50 mg increments to effect; reported range: 50 to 150 mg/day in divided doses 1 to 3 times daily (morning, noon, and 4 PM); maximum daily dose (weight-dependent): <30 kg: 100 mg/day; ≥30 kg: 150 mg/day (Donfrancecso 2007; Mohammadi 2010); dosing based on two small open-label trials (n=24, n=20; age range: 5 to 14 years) which suggested improvements in symptoms; the comparison trial with methylphenidate (n=40) showed both amantadine and methylphenidate yielded significant improvement in ADHD symptoms (50% reduction from baseline symptoms), with no significant differences in efficacy between the groups; more frequent side effects in the methylphenidate group (Mohammadi 2010).
Autism (hyperactivity, irritability): Very limited data available (Hosenbocus 2013): Oral: Immediate release: Children ≥5 years and Adolescents: Initial: 2.5 mg/kg/dose once daily for 1 week, then increase to 2.5 mg/kg/dose twice daily; maximum daily dose: 200 mg/day; dosing based on short-term (4-week) double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 39 pediatric patients (treatment group, n=19) which showed improvement in clinician-rated behavioral and hyperactivity ratings (King 2001).
Influenza A treatment/prophylaxis:Note: Due to high resistance rates, amantadine is no longer recommended by the CDC for the treatment or prophylaxis of influenza A (CDC 2018; IDSA [Uyeki 2019]). Please refer to the current CDC recommendations. The following is based on the manufacturer's labeling and last applicable CDC guidelines (CDC/ACIP 2011): Oral: Immediate release:
Influenza A treatment:
1 to 9 years: 5 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses (manufacturer's labeling: 4.4 to 8.8 mg/kg/day); maximum daily dose: 150 mg/day.
≥10 years and <40 kg: 5 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses (CDC/ACIP 2011).
≥10 years and ≥40 kg: 100 mg twice daily (CDC/ACIP 2011).
Note: Initiate within 24 to 48 hours after onset of symptoms; continue for 24 to 48 hours after symptom resolution (duration of therapy is generally 3 to 5 days).
Influenza A prophylaxis: Refer to "Influenza A treatment" dosing.
Note: Continue prophylaxis throughout the peak influenza activity in the community or throughout the entire influenza season in patients who cannot be vaccinated. Development of immunity following vaccination takes ~2 weeks; amantadine therapy should be considered for high-risk patients from the time of vaccination until immunity has developed. For ages <9 years receiving influenza vaccine for the first time, amantadine prophylaxis should continue for 6 weeks (4 weeks after the first dose and 2 weeks after the second dose).
Multiple-sclerosis associated lassitude (fatigue): Limited data available (Beers 2005; Pohl 2007): Oral: Immediate release:
6 to <10 years or weight <40 kg: 2.5 mg/kg/dose twice daily; maximum daily dose: 150 mg/day.
≥10 years and weight ≥40 kg: 100 mg twice daily, may titrate dose to clinical response; maximum daily dose: 400 mg/day.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI): Limited data available: Oral: Immediate release:
Children ≥6 years and Adolescents <16 years: 4 to 6 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses; maximum daily dose (age or weight dependent): If <10 years or <40 kg: 150 mg/day; if ≥10 years or ≥40 kg: 200 mg/day (Beers 2005; McMahon 2009). While total daily dose similar in trials, the reported dosing approaches and efficacy results are variable (eg, timing of therapy initiation, duration of study, outcome measures) (Williams 2007). In an open-label, case-controlled trial of 27 pediatric patients with TBI within the last 24 months prior to enrollment (n=17 amantadine treatment, n=10 controls), patients received 5 mg/kg/day for entire study period of 12 weeks; results showed improvement in behavior (parental report) and a subset analysis suggested therapy more effective on cognition for those with more recent injury (Beers 2005). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of seven pediatric patients (mean age: 12.7 years) with TBI within last 12 weeks prior to enrollment, therapy was initiated at 4 mg/kg/day up to 300 mg/day for 1 week, and increased to 6 mg/kg/day up to 400 mg/day for Weeks 2 and 3 of the study duration; improved consciousness observed during treatment period of study (McMahon 2009; Vargus-Adams 2010).
Adolescents ≥16 years: Initial: 100 mg twice daily for 14 days; on Week 3 increase to 150 mg twice daily; may further increase to 200 mg twice daily on Week 4 if needed; dosing based on a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 184 patients (age range: 16 to 65 years; treatment group, n=87) which showed 4 weeks of amantadine therapy initiated at 4 to 16 weeks postinjury increased the rate of functional recovery (Giacino 2012).
ER capsule: Administer at bedtime with or without food. Swallow whole; do not crush, chew, or divide capsules. If needed, sprinkle entire contents on a small amount (teaspoonful) of soft food, such as applesauce, and administer immediately without chewing.
ER tablet: Administer in the morning without regard to food. Swallow whole; do not crush, chew, or divide tablets.
Bariatric surgery: Some institutions may have specific protocols that conflict with these recommendations; refer to institutional protocols as appropriate.
Capsule, extended release: Capsule may be opened and contents sprinkled onto soft food of choice. Patient should be instructed to swallow the mixture without biting down or chewing.
Tablet, extended release: Do not cut, crush, or chew. Switch to IR formulation or consider amantadine ER capsule since it can be opened.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect immediate-release capsules from moisture and exposure to light.
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Capsule, Oral, as hydrochloride:
Generic: 100 mg
Capsule Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral, as hydrochloride [strength expressed as base]:
Gocovri: 68.5 mg, 137 mg
Syrup, Oral, as hydrochloride:
Generic: 50 mg/5 mL (10 mL, 473 mL)
Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:
Tablet ER 24 Hour Therapy Pack, Oral, as hydrochloride:
Osmolex ER: 129 & 193 MG (60 ea) [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigotine), fd&c red #40, fd&c yellow #10 (quinoline yellow), fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]
Tablet Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral, as hydrochloride [strength expressed as base]:
Osmolex ER: 129 mg [contains fd&c yellow #10 (quinoline yellow), fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]
Osmolex ER: 193 mg [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigotine), fd&c red #40, fd&c yellow #10 (quinoline yellow), fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]
Osmolex ER: 258 mg [contains brilliant blue fcf (fd&c blue #1), fd&c red #40, fd&c yellow #10 (quinoline yellow), fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]
Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of Amantadine. Alcohol may also cause dose-dumping for at least one extended-release amantadine product. Avoid combination
Alizapride: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Avoid combination
Alkalinizing Agents: May increase the serum concentration of Amantadine. Monitor therapy
Amisulpride (Injection): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Avoid combination
Amisulpride (Oral): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Amisulpride (Oral). Avoid combination
Anticholinergic Agents: Amantadine may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy
Antipsychotic Agents (First Generation [Typical]): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antipsychotic Agents (First Generation [Typical]). Management: Avoid concomitant therapy if possible. If antipsychotic use is necessary, consider using atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at lower initial doses, or a non-dopamine antagonist (eg, pimavanserin). Exceptions: Methotrimeprazine. Consider therapy modification
Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Management: Consider avoiding atypical antipsychotic use in patients with Parkinson disease. If an atypical antipsychotic is necessary, consider using clozapine, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at lower initial doses, or a non-dopamine antagonist (eg, pimavanserin). Consider therapy modification
Brivudine [INT]: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Specifically, the risk of chorea may be increased. Monitor therapy
Bromopride: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Monitor therapy
BuPROPion: Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of BuPROPion. Monitor therapy
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of Amantadine. Monitor therapy
Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of OCT2 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Glycopyrrolate (Systemic): Amantadine may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Glycopyrrolate (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Influenza Virus Vaccine (Live/Attenuated): Antiviral Agents (Influenza A and B) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Influenza Virus Vaccine (Live/Attenuated). Management: Avoid anti-influenza antivirals during the period beginning 48 hours prior to and ending 2 weeks after live influenza virus vaccine administration. Consider therapy modification
Memantine: NMDA Receptor Antagonists may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Memantine. Monitor therapy
Methotrimeprazine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Methotrimeprazine. Avoid combination
Methylphenidate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Monitor therapy
Metoclopramide: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Avoid combination
Propiverine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Amantadine. Monitor therapy
Solriamfetol: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Monitor therapy
Sulpiride: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Avoid combination
Tafenoquine: May increase the serum concentration of OCT2 Substrates. Management: Avoid use of OCT2 substrates with tafenoquine, and if the combination cannot be avoided, monitor closely for evidence of toxicity of the OCT2 substrate and consider a reduced dose of the OCT2 substrate according to that substrate's labeling. Consider therapy modification
Trimethoprim: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Amantadine. Specifically, the risk of myoclonus and/or delirium may be increased. Amantadine may increase the serum concentration of Trimethoprim. Trimethoprim may increase the serum concentration of Amantadine. Monitor therapy
Urinary Acidifying Agents: May decrease the serum concentration of Amantadine. Monitor therapy
Renal function (baseline and as clinically indicated), mental status including psychosis, hallucinations, depression and suicidality, dizziness, blood pressure, and orthostasis (as clinically indicated)
May interfere with urine detection of amphetamines/methamphetamines (false-positive).
Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (≤29%; may be more common in men), presyncope (≤29%), syncope (≤29%), peripheral edema (1% to 16%)
Central nervous system: Dizziness (≤29%), delusions (≤25%), hallucination (≤25%), illusion (≤25%), paranoia (≤25%), falling (13%)
Gastrointestinal: Xerostomia (1% to 16%; may be more common in women), constipation (1% to 13%)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Livedo reticularis (1% to 6%; may be more common in women)
Central nervous system: Insomnia (5% to 10%), anxiety (1% to 7%), depression (1% to 6%), headache (1% to 6%), abnormal dreams (1% to 5%; may be more common in women), agitation (1% to 5%), ataxia (1% to 5%; may be more common in men and adults ≥65 years old), confusion (1% to 5%), drowsiness (1% to 5%), fatigue (1% to 5%), irritability (1% to 5%), nervousness (1% to 5%), dyschromia (3%), dystonia (3%), apathy (2%), suicidal ideation (≤2%)
Gastrointestinal: Nausea (5% to 10%; may be more common in women), decreased appetite (6%), anorexia (1% to 5%), diarrhea (1% to 5%), vomiting (3%)
Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (10%), benign prostatic hypertrophy (6%)
Hematologic & oncologic: Bruise (6%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Joint swelling (3%), muscle spasm (3%)
Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (4%), cataract (3%; may be more common in women), xerophthalmia (3%)
Respiratory: Dry nose (1% to 5%), cough (3%)
<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormal gait, abnormality in thinking, acute respiratory tract failure, aggressive behavior, agranulocytosis, amnesia, anaphylaxis, cardiac arrhythmia (including malignant arrhythmias), cardiac failure, coma, corneal edema, decreased libido, decreased visual acuity, delirium, diaphoresis, dysphagia, dyspnea, eczema, edema, EEG pattern changes, euphoria, fever, hyperkinesia, hypersensitivity reaction, hypertension, hypertonia, hypokinesia, hypotension, impulse control disorder, increased blood urea nitrogen, increased creatine phosphokinase, increased gamma-glutamyl transferase, increased lactate dehydrogenase, increased libido, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, increased serum ALT, increased serum AST, increased serum bilirubin, increased serum creatinine, keratitis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, mania, mydriasis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (associated with dosage reduction or abrupt withdrawal of amantadine), neutropenia, oculogyric crisis, optic nerve palsy, paresthesia, pathological gambling, pruritus, psychosis, pulmonary edema, seizure, skin photosensitivity, skin rash, slurred speech, stupor, tachycardia, tachypnea, tremor, urinary retention, visual disturbance (including punctate subepithelial or other corneal opacity), weakness
Elimination half-life is increased 2- to 3-fold or greater when CrCl is less than 40 mL/minute/1.73 m2.
Clearance is reduced.
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving). Patients taking amantadine for Parkinson disease have reported falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living, sometimes without warning. Patients with a concomitant sleep disorder may be at a greater risk. There is insufficient information that dose reduction will eliminate episodes of falling asleep or daytime somnolence.
• Impulse control disorders: Dopamine agonists used for Parkinson disease or restless legs syndrome have been associated with compulsive behaviors and/or loss of impulse control, which has manifested as pathological gambling, libido increases (hypersexuality), urges to spend money, and/or binge eating. Causality has not been established, and controversy exists as to whether this phenomenon is related to the underlying disease, prior behaviors/addictions, and/or drug therapy. Dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy has been reported to reverse these behaviors in some, but not all cases.
• Melanoma: Risk for melanoma development is increased in Parkinson disease patients; drug causation or factors contributing to risk have not been established. Patients should be monitored closely and periodic skin examinations should be performed.
• Psychosis: Visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions, illusions, and paranoia were reported in clinical trials; monitor for the occurrence of these symptoms especially at initiation and after dose increases. Use is not recommended in patients with preexisting psychotic disorders.
• Suicidal ideation/depression: There have been reports of suicidal ideation/attempt and depression in patients with and without a history of psychiatric illness. May exacerbate mental problems in patients with a history of mental illness.
• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with heart failure, peripheral edema, or orthostatic hypotension; dizziness, syncope, orthostatic hypotension, presyncope, postural dizziness, and hypotension have been reported in clinical trials. Dosage reduction may be required.
• Eczema: Use with caution in patients with a history of recurrent and eczematoid dermatitis.
• Glaucoma: Avoid in untreated angle closure glaucoma.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; rarely, reversible elevations in transaminases have been reported.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; dosage reduction recommended. Use of the extended-release products is contraindicated in end-stage renal disease (CrCl <15 mL/minute/1.73 m2).
• Seizure disorder: Use with caution in patients with a history of seizure disorder.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Elderly: Use with caution in the elderly; may be more susceptible to CNS effects (using 2 divided daily doses of immediate-release products may minimize this effect). These patients may require dosage reductions.
Dosage form specific issues:
• Propylene glycol: Some dosage forms may contain propylene glycol; large amounts are potentially toxic and have been associated hyperosmolality, lactic acidosis, seizures and respiratory depression; use caution (AAP 1997; Zar 2007).
• Tolerance: Tolerance has also been reported with long-term use (Zubenko 1984).
• Withdrawal syndrome: A symptom complex resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome (elevated temperature, muscular rigidity, altered consciousness, and autonomic instability) with no other obvious cause has been reported in association with rapid dose reduction, withdrawal of, or changes in drugs that increased central dopaminergic dose. Abrupt discontinuation of amantadine may cause agitation, anxiety, delirium, delusions, depression, hallucinations, paranoia, parkinsonian crisis, slurred speech, or stupor. Upon discontinuation of amantadine therapy, gradually taper dose.
Adverse events have been observed in animal reproduction studies, and teratogenic events have been observed in humans (case reports) (Seier 2017).
When treatment for Parkinson disease is needed, agents other than amantadine are recommended in pregnant women (Seier 2017).
Amantadine is no longer recommended as an antiviral (CDC 2018; IDSA [Uyeki 2019]). The mechanism of amantadine’s antiviral activity has not been fully elucidated. It appears to primarily prevent the release of infectious viral nucleic acid into the host cell by interfering with the transmembrane domain of the viral M2 protein. Amantadine is also known to prevent viral assembly during replication. Amantadine inhibits the replication of influenza A virus isolates from each of the subtypes (ie, H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2), but has very little or no activity against influenza B virus isolates.
The exact mechanism of amantadine in the treatment of Parkinson disease and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms is not known. Data from early animal studies suggest that amantadine may have direct and indirect effects on dopamine neurons; however, recent studies have demonstrated that amantadine is a weak, noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. Although amantadine has not been shown to possess direct anticholinergic activity, clinically, it exhibits anticholinergic-like side effects (dry mouth, urinary retention, and constipation).
Vd: Normal: 3 to 8 L/kg; Renal failure: 5.1 ± 0.2 L/kg (Aoki 1988)
Not appreciable; small amounts of an acetyl metabolite identified
Urine (80% to 90% unchanged) by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion
Antidyskinetic: Within 48 hours
Plasma: Extended-release capsule: 12 hours (mean; range: 6 to 20 hours); extended-release tablet: 7.5 hours (median; range: 5.5 to 12 hours); immediate release: 2 to 4 hours
Normal renal function: 16 ± 6 hours (9 to 31 hours); Healthy, older (≥60 years) males: 29 hours (range: 20 to 41 hours) (Aoki 1988); End-stage renal disease: 8 days
Normal renal function: ~67%; Hemodialysis: ~59% (Aoki 1988)
What is this drug used for?
• It is used to treat or prevent the flu.
• It is used to treat Parkinson's disease and side effects caused by some other drugs.
• It may be given for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.
Frequently reported side effects of this drug
• Dry mouth
• Lack of appetite
• Abnormal dreams
• Dry nose
• Loss of strength and energy
• Tablet shell in stool
• Trouble sleeping
Other side effects of this drug: Talk with your doctor right away if you have any of these signs of:
• Severe dizziness
• Passing out
• Sensing things that seem real but are not
• Shortness of breath
• Excessive weight gain
• Swelling of arms or legs
• Difficult urination
• Blurred vision
• Uncontrollable urges
• Change in balance
• Depression like thoughts of suicide, anxiety, emotional instability, agitation, irritability, panic attacks, mood changes, behavioral changes, or confusion
• Skin growths
• Mole changes
• Urinary tract infection like blood in the urine, burning or painful urination, passing a lot of urine, fever, lower abdominal pain, or pelvic pain.
• Severe fatigue
• Neuroleptic malignant syndrome like fever, muscle cramps or stiffness, dizziness, severe headache, confusion, change in thinking, fast heartbeat, abnormal heartbeat, or sweating a lot.
• Signs of a significant reaction like wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.
Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.